Coastlines are critical to the ongoing health and vitality of human settlements. Most
people live in cities now, and many major cities worldwide are located in sensitive
coastal environments. These metropolitan ecosystems are under increasing threat from urbanization: pollution, subdivision construction, and transit corridors, industrial and commercial development. Conversely, urban systems are threatened by natural forces such as hurricanes and flooding. As a result of these interactive processes, the edge
condition between land and sea has become a critical factor in urban design. The big
issue is how to create waterfront conditions that promote biodiversity and resilience at
the same time as providing appropriate environments for the millions of people who live and work in these conditions.
Designing open systems Published May 23, 2012